Given that the universe is dominated by dark matter, which is much more (up to 85% of all matter in the universe) than visible baryon matter, and that dark matter is the foundation that holds the galaxies, discovery is really important. That suggests dark matter can be decoupled not only from regular, visible matter, but from entire galaxies-a phenomenon astronomers have never seen until now. Usually, we presume that there's dark issue around since the galaxy shows up to have a great deal even more issue compared to the quantity given by the celebrities we could see. When he and his team went to measure the speed of star clusters in the galaxy, which should have been moving about 67,000 miles per hour, they found the clusters were moving a sluggish 18,000 miles per hour instead. By measuring their motions, the astronomers could calculate the mass of material enclosed inside their orbits.
"Finding a galaxy without dark matter is unexpected, because this invisible mysterious substance is the most dominant aspect of a galaxy", said Dokuum. "This whole story is one of dark matter being the scaffolding on which every galaxy is built", said van Dokkum.
In that study, the researchers found an object that could exist in a universe that has dark matter, but that would be almost unimaginable in a MOND universe: a totally normal galaxy, one that seems to operate without any dark matter-type forces. But there's normally much more dark matter than ordinary stuff in most galaxies, so the authors conclude that, "NGC1052-DF2 is extremely deficient in dark matter, and a good candidate for a "baryonic galaxy" with no dark matter at all". It's like finding a body without a skeleton. "How do you create a galaxy without dark matter first?" But this new class "is breaking all the rules", he said. The unique galaxy is about 65 million light years away. Because there's some regular issue right here, any kind of variation of customized gravity would certainly have that issue generate dark-matter-like impacts.
In addition, the absence of dark matter is not the only quirk of DF2.
Speculative explanations include that a collision or cataclysmic event within the galaxy resulted in all the dark matter being swept away.
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The next step is to figure out whether this galaxy is an exception or the norm, says Ostriker.
At present, it is though, a necessity for a universe or galaxy to have dark matter for its fabrication.
Other theories might work better. We don't see any indication of these effects, so modified gravity ideas must be wrong. "The alternate possibility is that the globular clusters, or the objects they think are globular clusters, aren't really measuring the total mass in the way they think", he says. LUX-ZEPLIN and XENON1T both use liquid xenon to hunt for WIMPs.
So, when astronomers look at the galaxies, our own Milky Way included, they find that the normal matter - stars, dust, nebulae, etc - are moving so fast that they'll all just fly apart from one another. "That object was a surprise in the other direction", he says.
The scientists recommend that the somewhat-odd look of the globular collections is possibly associated with the galaxy's unforeseen buildings, and also they introduced they're dealing with a paper that will certainly explain those.