Turkey has waged a two-year effort to have Gulen extradited from the United States.
Brunson, who has lived in Turkey for almost two decades, was arrested later that year and charged with complicity in the attempt to overthrow Erdogan's government.
The sanctions imposed Wednesday target Turkey's Minister of Justice Abdulhamit Gul and Minister of Interior Suleyman Soylu, whom the U.S. Treasury Department claims both played leading roles in the organizations that unjustly detained Brunson.
The US imposed financial sanctions on Turkey's justice and interior ministers yesterday for detaining an American pastor accused of backing a coup attempt against President Erdogan.
"We believe he's a victim of unfair and unjust attention by the government of Turkey", Sanders said of Brunson.
Brunson was accused of helping supporters of Fethullah Gulen, the USA -based cleric who Turkish authorities say masterminded the 2016 coup attempt against President Tayyip Erdogan in which 250 people were killed.
The two officials, Minister of Justice Abdulhamit Gul and Minister of Interior Suleyman Soylu, will have their assets and properties under U.S. jurisdiction blocked and Americans will be prohibited from engaging in financial transactions with them.
As a result of the sanctions, US persons can't engage in transactions with either man and any property of theirs within USA jurisdiction is blocked.
The U.S. sanctions were imposed under the auspices of the Magnitsky Act, originally a tool to punish Russian officials for serious human rights abuses but which is now being applied to human rights abusers worldwide.
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U.S. President Donald Trump has raised the case directly with Erdogan, Sanders said.
Turkey's foreign ministry said it had shared "necessary information" with the United States, but insisted the case should be left with its judiciary.
Trump, who met with Erdogan last month at a North Atlantic Treaty Organisation summit in Brussels, believed he had made a deal with the Turkish leader that included releasing Brunson in exchange for a Turkish woman being held in Israel on terrorism charges.
"We've seen no evidence that Pastor Brunson has done anything wrong", she said.
"They can not make Turkey back down with sanctions", Erdogan said to Turkish media.
Pompeo said Trump had decided that sanctions were "the appropriate action".
"The US should not forget that unless it changes its attitude, it will lose a strong and honest partner like Turkey", he added.
Last week, Brunson was allowed to leave prison and remain under house arrest, but his request to leave Turkey was denied.